According to the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022, about 415 million people in India came out of poverty between 2005-06 and 2019-21, falling from 55 per cent to more than 16 per cent in this period.
However, despite significant reductions, the world’s largest number of poor people – 228.9 million – lived in India in 2020, according to the MPI report released Monday by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford.
India’s MPI value and poverty incidence were both more than half that. The MPI value fell from 0.283 in 2005-2006 to 0.122 in 2015-2016 and 0.069 in 2019-2021. The incidence of poverty fell from 55.1 per cent in 2005-2006 to 27.7 per cent in 2015-2016 and 16.4 per cent in 2015-2016.
However, the data does not reflect post-pandemic changes. The COVID-19 pandemic could set back progress in poverty reduction globally by 3-10 years, the report said, adding that the most recent data on food security from the World Food Program shows that The number of people living in a food crisis, or worse, rose to 193 million in 2021.
“Despite progress, India’s population remains vulnerable to the growing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and rising food and energy prices. Integrated policies should be a priority to tackle the ongoing nutrition and energy crisis,” it said.
The MPI report said the incidence of poverty fell from 36.6 per cent in 2015-2016 to 21.2 per cent in rural areas in 2019-2021 and from 9.0 per cent in urban areas to 5.5 per cent.
Poverty decline shows that “Sustainable Development Goal 1.2 is possible to achieve by 2030 the target of reducing the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty by at least half, according to national definitions—and scale,” the report said.
The report noted that the country’s poorest states reduced poverty the fastest, and deprivation across all indicators was significantly lower among poor people. Poverty among children declined sharply in absolute terms, although India still has one of the most impoverished children in the world. One in five children in India is poor (21.8 per cent or 97 million), compared to one in seven adults (13.9 per cent).
The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index is a leading international resource that measures acute multidimensional poverty in more than 100 developing countries and was first launched in 2010 by the OPHI and UNDP’s Office of Human Development Report.
The MPI monitors deprivation across ten indicators spanning health, education and standard of living and includes both the incidence and intensity of poverty.
The most common profile, affecting 3.9 per cent of poor people, included deprivation in four indicators: nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation and housing. More than 45.5 million poor people are disadvantaged in these four indicators alone. Of those people, 34.4 million live in India, 2.1 million in Bangladesh and 1.9 million in Pakistan – making it a “predominantly South Asian profile”, – the MPI report said.
“India’s progress shows that this target (Sustainable Development Goal 1.2 to reduce poverty) is doable on a large scale as well,” the report said, adding that India was significantly short of all ten indicators. Shows.
2019-2021showsw that around 4.2 per cent of the population lives in severe poverty, and about 18.7 per cent, roughly the same proportion as in 2015-2016, are in poverty.